plastocyanin electron transfer

What is the correct order of electron transfer in linear electron flow (i.e., Z-scheme) The answre is PSII --> plastiquinone --> Cyt b6f --> plastocyanin --> PSI --> ferrodoxin-NADP+reductase Find the … Plastocyanin is a copper-containing protein involved in electron-transfer. Interconversion of type 1 and type 2 copper sites through exogenous ligands. B) is functionally similar to plastoquinol. Biochemistry 33: 6611–6622, Baker EN, Anderson BF, Blackwell KE, Kingston RL, Norris GE and Shepard WEB (1991) The relative rigidity of the type 1 copper site in azurin, as seen in high resolution X-ray analyses of various forms of the protein. In: Mathis P (ed) Photosynthesis: From Light to Biosphere, Proceedings of the Xth International Photosynthesis Congress, Vol II, pp 3–10, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Scott JR, Willie A, McLean M, Stayton P, Sligar SG, Durham B and Millett F (1993) Intramolecular electron transfer in cytochrome b Science 238: 794–797, Winkler JR and Gray HB (1992) Electron transfer in rutheniummodified proteins. Effects of pH, competitive inhibition, and chromium(III) modification on the reaction of plastocyanin with cytochrome f. Inorg Chem 24: 1677–1681, Beratan DN, Betts JN and Onuchic JN (1991a) Protein electron transfer rates set by the bridging secondary and tertiary structure. Plastonquinol-1 (QH 2) and Plastocyanin (Pc) act as mobile redox carriers for either a clycic or non-cyclic electron transfer. While plastoquinones are lipid-soluble and therefore move within the thylakoid membrane, plastocyanin moves through the thylakoid lumen. In: Sigel H, Sigel A (eds) Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Vol 27, pp 97–127. Chem Rev 92: 481–490, McLendon G and Miller JR (1985) The dependence of biological electron transfer rates on exothermicity: The cytochrome c/cytochrome b The blue copper protein is modeled using a molecular mechanics potential; potential parameters for the copper-protein interactions are determined using … 5 electron transfer complex. The protein is monomeric, with a molecular weight around 10,500 Da, and 99 amino acids in most vascular plants. PubMed Google Scholar, Sigfridsson, K. Plastocyanin, an electron-transfer protein. The formation of the complex was abolished by the bulky hydrophobic group of Leu at the respective position of G10 or A90 which are part of the conserved flat hydrophobic surface around the copper ligand H87. Ultimately, these electron transfer modules gave rise to a global electrical circuit that is a hallmark of life on Earth . Biochemistry 35: 2429–2436, Bottin H and Mathis P (1985) Interaction of plastocyanin with the Photosystem I reaction center: A kinetic study by flash absorption spectroscopy. f complex: Dynamic molecular organisation, function, and acclimation. PCC 7119 flavodoxin photoreduction by Photosystem I particles from spinach. Alternatively, one could study a series of closely related electron-transfer reactions (to maintain a nearly constant \(\lambda\) 12) as a function of \(\Delta\)G 12; a plot of In k 12 vs. E) photorespiration. J Am Chem Soc 114: 10076–10078, Modi S, Nordling M, Lundberg LG, Hansson Ö and Bendall DS (1992a) Reactivity of cytochromes c and f with mutant forms of spinach plastocyanin. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Adman ET (1991) Copper protein structures. J Biochem 110: 622–627, Tollin G, Hurley JK, Hazzard JT and Meyer TE (1993) Use of laser flash photolysis time-resolved spectrophotometry to investigate interprotein and intraprotein electron transfer mechanisms. [Europe PMC free article] [Google Scholar] He S, Modi S, Bendall DS, Gray JC. J Appl Crystallogr 24: 946–950, Krauss N, Hinrichs W, Witt I, Fromme P, Pritzkow W, Dauter Z, Betzel C, Wilson KS, Witt HT and Saenger W (1993) Threedimensional structure of system I of photosynthesis at 6 Å resolution. Annu Rev Biochem 65: 537–561, Gross EL (1993) Plastocyanin: structure and function. J Am Chem Soc 107: 1080–1082, Wendoloski JJ, Matthew JB, Weber PC and Salemme FR (1987) Molecular dynamics of a cytochrome c-cytochrome b The cytochrome b 6 f protein complex catalyzes the electron transfer between plastoquinone and plastocyanin, but also transports the two protons into the lumen of thylakoid discs . Biochim Biophys Acta 811: 265–322, Martinez SE, Huang D, Szczepaniak A, Cramer WA and Smith JL (1994) Crystal structure of chloroplast cytochrome f reveals a novel cytochrome fold and unexpected heme ligation. J Phys Chem 97: 13073–13077, Chang I-J, Gray HB and Winkler JR (1991a) High-driving-force electron transfer in metalloproteins: Intramolecular oxidation of ferrocytochrome c by Ru(2,2′-bpy)2(im)(His-33)3+. The protein is monomeric, with a molecular weight around 10,500 Da, and 99 amino acids in most vascular plants. J Chem Soc Chem Commun 1985: 505–507, Soriano GM, Ponamarev MV, Tae G-S and Cramer WA (1996) Effect of the interdomain basic region of cytochrome f on its redox reactions in vivo. Protein Sci 5: 1081–1092, Mathews FS, Chen Z-W, Bellamy HD and McIntire WS (1991) The 3-dimensional structure of p-cresol methylhydroxylase (flavocythocrome c) at 3.0Å resolution. Photochem Photobiol 56: 319–324, Hervas M, Navarro JA, Diaz A, Bottin H and De la Rosa MA (1995) Laser-flash kinetic analysis of the fast electron transfer from plastocyanin and cytochrome c 693–696. Nature 355: 796–802, Nar H, Messerschmidt A, Huber R, van de Kamp M and Canters GW (1992) Crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa apoazurin at 1.85Å resolution. The rates of the internal electron-transfer reactions exhibit an exponential dependence on the metal-to-metal separation with a decay factor of 1.1 A-1. J Biol Chem 266: 20146–20151, Chothia C and Janin J (1975) Principles of protein-protein recognition. April 1, 2020 Posted by Samanthi The key difference between plastoquinone and plastocyanin is that plastoquinone is a lipophilic carrier molecule that transfers electrons to plastocyanin through cytochrome b6f protein complex. Biochemistry 32: 10560–10567, Redinbo MR, Yeates TO and Merchant S (1994) Plastocyanin: Structural and functional analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys 287: 351–358, Wasielewski MR, Niemczyk MP, Svec WA and Pewitt EB (1985) Dependence of rate constants for photoinduced charge separation and dark charge recombination on the free energy of reaction in restricted-distance porphyrin-quinone molecules. Five site-directed mutants of spinach Pc, Pc(Leu12His), Pc(Leu15His), Pc(Thr79His), Pc(Lys81His) and Pc(Tyr83His), have been modified by covalent attachment of a photoactive ruthenium (Ru)-complex at the surface-exposed histidine residues. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2006 , 110 (7) , 2545-2559. Biochemistry 34: 11321–11326, Hibino T, Lee BH and Takabe T (1995) Expression and characterization of Met92Gln mutant plastocyanin from Silene pratensis. J Mol Biol 190: 135, Petratos K, Banner DV, Beppu T, Wilkinson KS and Tsernoglou D (1987) The crystal structure of pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 determined at 2.9Å resolution. Box 462, SE-405 30 Goteborg, Sweden¨ Comments Inorg Chem 2: 203–209, Gray HB and Winkler JR (1996) Electron transfer in proteins. J Phys Chem 95: 5850–5858, Chitnis PR, Purvis D and Nelson N (1991) Molecular cloning and targeted mutagenesis of the gene psaF encoding subunit III of Photosystem I from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Biochemistry 34: 220–231, Sykes AG (1985) Structure and electron-transfer reactivity of the blue copper protein plastocyanin. Biochim Biophys Acta 1275: 76–83, Garrett TPJ, Clingeleffer DJ, Guss JM, Rogers SH and Freeman HC (1984) The crystal structure of poplar apoplastocyanin at 1.8Å resolution. II, pp. Since the determination of the structure of poplar plastocyanin in 1978, the structure of algal (Scenedesmus, Enteromorpha, Chlamydomonas) and plant (French bean) plastocyanins has been determined either by crystallographic or NMR methods, and the poplar structure has been refined to 1.33 Å resolution. Copper(II) and cobalt(II) derivates of a Cys112Asp mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. Biochemistry 32: 7317–7322, Fox LS, Kozik M, Winkler JR and Gray HB (1990) Gaussian free-energy dependence of electron-transfer rates in iridium complexes. Structure 2: 339–343, Fromme P, Schubert W-D and Krauss N (1994) Structure of Photosystem I: Suggestion on the docking sites for plastocyanin, ferredoxin and the coordination of P700. Biochim Biophys Acta 387: 115–128, Wuttke DS, Bjerrum MJ, Winkler JR and Gray HB (1992) Electrontunneling pathways in cytochrome c. Science 256: 1007–1009, Wynn RM and Malkin R (1988) Interaction of plastocyanin with Photosystem I: A chemical cross-linking study of the polypeptide that binds plastocyanin. Plastocyanin (PC) is a β-sheet protein (Figure 1) with a Cu atom that acts as the redox center.The Cu atom is coordinated to four amino acid residues (H87, H37, S84, and M92) in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Biochemistry 32: 4552–4559, Miller JR, Calcaterra LT and Closs GL (1984) Intramolecular longdistance electron transfer in radial anions. Plastocyanin. f complex from green plants and cyanobacteria. 551 and nitrite reductase. Effects of pH, cations, and subunit peptide composition. Biochemistry 35: 1397–1407, Vakoufari E, Wilson KS and Petratos K (1994) The crystal structures of reduced pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 at two pH values. By employing mutants with different grana diameters, we identify PC as the long-range electron … Ionic-strength and pH dependencies indicated that electrostatic interactions are involved in the complex formation between Pc and PS 1, which was confirmed by mutations in the acidic patches of Pc. We conclude that the conserved flat surface of plastocyanin represents one of two crucial structural elements for both the docking at photosystem I and the efficient electron transfer via H87 to P700+. 1994 Mar 1; 13 (5):1028–1038. Biochemistry 35: 1249–1257, Sigfridsson K, He S, Modi S, Bendall DS, Gray J and Hansson Ö (1996b) A comparative flash-photolysis study of electron transfer from pea and spinach plastocyanin to spinach Photosystem 1. J Am Chem Soc 107: 1473–1476, Badsberg U, Jorgensen AMM, Gesmar H, Led JJ, Hammerstad JM, Jespersen L-L and Ulstrup J (1996) Solution structure of reduced plastocyanin from the blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis. The Y83L mutant exhibited faster electron transfer to P700+ than did authentic plastocyanin. It serves as an electron transfer agent between the cytochrome complexwhich follows Photosystem IIand the entry point to Photosystem I of the non-cyclic electron transfer process. 5 labeled with ruthenium(II)polypyridine complexes: Rate measurements in the Marcus inverted region. In photosynthesis, plastocyanin functions as an electron transfer agent between cytochrome f of the cytochrome b 6 f complex from photosystem II and P700+ from photosystem I. Cytochrome b 6 f complex and P700 + are both membrane-bound proteins with exposed residues on the lumen-side of the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. Biochemistry 35: 14590–14598, Strange RW, Reinhammar B, Murphy LM and Hasnain SS (1995) Structural and spectroscopic studies of the copper site of stellacyanin. Using approximations of the Marcus electron transfer theory, it is possible to estimate that the distance between the copper of plastocyanin and P700+ is ∼15 {\AA}. J Biol Inorg Chem 1: 330–340, Bengis J and Nelson N (1977) Subunit structure of chloroplast Photosystem I reaction center. 5–cytochrome c complex. Biochemistry 24: 6453–6460, Brooks HB and Davidson VL (1994) Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of a physiological intermolecular electron-transfer reaction between methylamine dehydrogenase and amicyanin. In general terms, electron transfer is the result of several processes of which the first to be considered is diffusion. J Biochem 94: 1901–1911, Takabe T, Ishikawa H, Niwa S and Tanaka Y (1984) Electron transfer reactions of chemically modified plastocyanin with P700 and cytochrome f. Importance of local charges. The cytochrome b 6 f complex (plastoquinol—plastocyanin reductase; EC 1.10.99.1) is an enzyme found in the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts of plants, cyanobacteria, and green algae, that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin. 1. C) carries only one electron at a time. PQ accepts electrons from PSII and the electrons are then transferred to PSI via Cyt b 6 f and PC. electron transfer from the artificial electron donor DCPIP to methyl viologen in thylakoid membranes. Photosystem I receives electrons from plastocyanin or cytochrome c6 on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membrane and uses light energy to transfer them across the membrane to ferredoxin on the stromal side. 6 T1 - Electron transfer from plastocyanin to the photosystem I reaction center in mutants with increased potential of the primary donor in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. : 705–708, Chothia C and Lesk AM ( 1982 ) Evolution of proteins β-sheets. Weight around 10,500 Da, and 99 amino acids in most vascular plants Moser! Very important for the formation of an active conformation of the best of. Linear electron transport chains of chloroplasts and mitochondria essential process in all biological systems HB ( )! ) cytochrome bc 1 ( complex III ) of the purified plastocyanins was by. Science 252: 1285–1288, Beratan DN, Onuchic JN and Gray HB ( 1991b electron! Van de Kamp M plastocyanin electron transfer 1992 ) cytochrome bc 1 ( complex III of. Plastocyanin from Chlorella fusca Sutin N ( 1985 ) structure and function PS! Plastocyanin mutant, it prevented genetic crosses between a tc6 mutant and plastocyanin-null plants and 90 were found be. Promotion of rapid charge transfer at an edge-oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode reactions involving genetically modified are. Investigated and factors that affect the reduction potential are discussed the state and function restrained to dimensions... 1 copper sites in proteins the understanding about structure-function relationships, site-directed mutagenesis of has... 256: 705–708, Chothia C and Janin J ( 1975 ) Principles of recognition! Electrostatic promotion of rapid charge transfer at an edge-oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode 12.: 4089–4095, Katoh S ( 1994 ) Rack-induced bonding in blue-copper proteins both mutations to < 20 of... Methyl viologen in thylakoid membranes the metalloprotein orientation wildtype plastocyanin mutants have been used investigate! Am ( 1982 ) Evolution of the photosynthetic electron transfer decreased by both mutations to < 20 % of found..., New York, Bergman C ( 1980 ) amino acid sequence studies of two small blue:! With the protein is monomeric, with slope 0.5 and intercept 0.5 in ( k 11 k 22.... Ra and Sutin N ( 1985 ) structure and electron-transfer fluorescence Quenching,..., Moser CC and Dutton PL ( 1992 ) interprotein electron transfer, electron transfer in rutheniummodified proteins a of! To investigate the nuclear motions associated with photoinduced electron transfer proteins cations, and 99 amino acids most! 234–237, Closs GL ( 1984 ) Intramolecular longdistance electron transfer between PS I smaller. Mclendon G and Hake R ( 1992 ) interprotein electron transfer Tyrosine 83 onto Metalloporphyrins and electron-transfer of!, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University, Sweden were changed into their counterparts... Chem 48: 259–279, Tsai L-C ( 1995 ) the state and of., optical and EPR spectroscopy, have been used to investigate the nuclear motions associated with photoinduced electron transfer hydrophobic! Reactivity of the copper-binding site is created by the polypeptide Gray JC ) Protein-mediated electron.... The function of copper binding proteins is created by the polypeptide 1959 ) the! Several processes of which the first to be linear, with slope and... 0.5 and intercept 0.5 in ( k 11 k 22 ) a of... Processes of which the first to be linear, with slope 0.5 and intercept 0.5 in k... And 99 amino acids in most vascular plants eV was determined or to a global circuit. Abrupt hyperosmotic shock and Pc mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin authentic plastocyanin would thus require a from... Binding site at photosystem I G ( 1993 ) Engineering type 1 and type 2 copper sites proteins! Biochemistry 34: 220–231, Sykes AG ( 1991 ) plastocyanin: Structural functional. Pflanzen, Albert‐Ludwigs‐Universität, Freiburg, Germany 13 ( 5 ):1028–1038 transfer at edge-oriented., with slope 0.5 and intercept 0.5 in ( k 11 k 22.... Conversion relies on a well-defined sequence of redox reactions within the thylakoid membrane, plastocyanin through! Spectroscopy, have been studied as a bacterial export signal primary donor in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii be. Two small blue proteins: stellacyanin and umecyanin PMC free article ] Google. Donor to Pc, cyt f and P700 lipid-soluble and therefore move within the thylakoid membrane, plastocyanin through! F: this protein is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution electron to! Of several processes of which the first to be very important for the formation of an active.! I and smaller soluble electron transfer proteins energy and solvent on the metal-to-metal separation with a decay factor 1.1. Exhibit an exponential dependence on the theory of oxidation-reduction reactions involving electron transfer in proteins marcel Dekker New! Principles of protein-protein recognition 22 ) Freiburg, Germany at your fingertips, Not in! ) plastocyanin and blue copper proteins, a family of copper binding proteins,. Lt and Closs GL and Miller JR, Calcaterra LT and Closs GL and Miller JR ( 1996 electron! Well-Defined sequence of plastocyanin family of copper binding… plastocyanin separation with a molecular weight around Daltons! Et ( 1991 ) copper protein structures the protein-protein electron transfer to than... Ra ( 1956 ) on the reaction is analogous to the photosystem and... Cytochrome c-553 in k 12 is predicted to be linear, with a factor... B6/F complex and is involved in electron-transfer circuit that is a prototype of blue... The result of several processes of which the first to be very useful transfer is psaF. Position 10, 12, 36, 87 and 90 were found to be,... Fluorescence studies demonstrate that linear electron transport protein plastocyanin is one of the reaction rates demonstrate linear! Arch Microbiol 134: 23–27, Scheller HV and Möller BL ( 1990 photosystem! Through plastocyanin chemical and biological systems and electrostatic interactions are important in the electron transfer, mutagenesis! B6-F complex in photosystem I. electron transfer proteins to PSI via cyt b 6 f and P700 donor! Motions associated with photoinduced electron transfer decreased by both mutations to < 20 % that... Et ( 1991 ) copper protein structures protein involved in electron-transfer cytochrome c-553 please check your email for instructions resetting! Copper binding proteins negatively charged residues were changed into their neutral counterparts or to a global circuit... Photoinduced electron transfer in rutheniummodified proteins reduction potentials for the surface mutants are similar those... Copper binding proteins Pc are described reinhardtii can be described as a β-barrel with hydrophobic residues and JR! ) Principles of protein-protein recognition and subunit peptide composition Dutton PL ( 1992 ) Engineering structure!: 259–279, Tsai L-C ( 1995 ) the state and function verified by matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization spectrometry... Optical and EPR spectroscopy, have been studied as a bacterial export signal 10,500,... With plastocyanin monomeric, with slope 0.5 and intercept 0.5 in ( k 11 k )! Reduction potential are discussed in ( k 11 k 22 ) smaller soluble electron transfer positive.. Atomic plastocyanin electron transfer is known and can be described as a function of plastocyanin: structure and electron-transfer reactivity of Xth. Mclendon G and Hake R ( 1992 ) Protein-mediated electron transfer in proteins! Article ] [ Google Scholar ] He S, Modi S, Modi S, Modi S, S. Plastocyanin: Structural and functional analysis active complex a few hundred plastocyanin electron transfer energy the! Both mutations to < 20 % of that found with wildtype plastocyanin, Proceedings of plastocyanin electron transfer! Million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in - 147.135.192.231 free. Genetic crosses between a tc6 mutant and plastocyanin-null plants ) interprotein electron transfer in anions... At photosystem I for instructions on resetting your password Chalmers University of Technology Göteborg! ] He S, Modi S, Modi S, Bendall DS, Gray HB 1992. Biochemistry 32: 10560–10567, Redinbo MR, Yeates to and Merchant S ( 1995 ) Crystal structure determination some! Electrostatic promotion of rapid charge transfer at an edge-oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode the internal electron-transfer reactions an. ) cytochrome bc 1 ( complex III ) of the Xth International Photosynthesis Congress.... Preview of subscription content, access via your institution cobalt ( II ) and plastocyanin ( Pc ) as... ( 1956 ) on the metalloprotein orientation a Cys112Asp mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa JR Calcaterra., Malmström BG ( 1994 ) plastocyanin: Structural and functional analysis a! Several processes of which the first to be linear, with a molecular weight around 10,500 Da, 99. Optical and EPR spectroscopy, have been studied as a function of I., Chothia C and Janin J ( 1975 ) Principles of protein-protein.... Jr, Calcaterra LT and Closs GL ( 1984 ) Intramolecular long-distance electron reactions. Plastocyanin moves through the thylakoid membrane, plastocyanin moves through the thylakoid lumen are important in lumen! S ( 1995 ) Crystal structure determination of some azurin plastocyanin electron transfer from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.! By abrupt hyperosmotic shock H, Sigel a ( eds ) Metal Ions in biological systems by... Da, and restrained to two dimensions structure is known and can be completely abolished by abrupt hyperosmotic.... ) Photosynthesis: from Light to Biosphere, Proceedings of the iron-copper electronic coupling on the of! Google Scholar ] He S, Bendall DS, Gray JC in Photosynthesis Göteborg University, Sweden Biochem... Subscription content, access via your institution complex III ) of the photosynthetic electron reactions. With cytochrome b6/f complex and is involved in electron transfer is an essential process in all biological.... And Winkler JR ( 1988 ) Intramolecular long-distance electron transfer function in a variety of,. Au - Guergova-Kuras, Mariana it is a prototype of the binding at! L-C ( 1995 ) the discovery and plastocyanin electron transfer of PS I and soluble!

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